1) reopen the question for people can answer it?
To get your question reopened, you'll need to convince five people with at least 3000 reps (or one moderator) that your question is worth opening. See: How do you reopen a closed question?
Posting here on meta is one way to drive attention to your question but is a double-edge sword as it may instead result in downvotes. Make sure you address any ambiguity or issues with the question before driving in the herd.
2) change stackoverflow algorithm so that questions can live more time before closed?
Closure of questions is not powered by some faceless algorithm -- it is a result of higher rep users actually reading your question and concluding that it does not currently meet the guidelines of the site. See: What is a "closed" or “on hold” question?
Hence, there is no algorithm to change -- only the community's perception of what is a valid question, as well as your own approach to asking question.
3) Lower @runtime reputation from my point of view or in some other way set that I am absolutely disagree with his/her comments and decisions?
It is not possible or sensible to reduce someone's reputation just because you disagree with their decision.
You can voice your disagreement by posting a comment on the question or here on meta, but at the end of the day (just as in real life) the community's judgment outweighs the individual's, and elected individuals (e.g. moderators) are entrusted with the authority to enforce the norms.
Yes, sometimes questions do get closed wrongly due to some ambiguity or lack of information. That is why there's a procedure for getting it reopen and ways for users to get it reviewed (by posting on meta, or flagging for moderator attention).