Do Superuser maybe need to employ some better UX staff to help solve the problem of trolls and unhelpful users skewing voting in unconstructive way?
There are already (at least some) measures taken to curb this, particularly time between votes and other actions on the same question. However, community members also help moderate these activities, which is why it is important to have an established user base.
It's really annoying and makes me feel less of a sense of respect and belonging here. I want to be able to vote up and down answers. What kind of marathon do I have to do to earn that privilege?
It certainly can be frustrating to feel excluded or to simply not know the requirements for specific privileges. You can check out the total amount of reputation required to perform certain actions here. In your case, you need a total of 15 rep for upvotes and total of 125 rep for downvotes.
The primary way to gain reputation is by posting your own questions/answers and having people upvote them (you get 10 rep per upvote currently). So, to plug these numbers into the "real" world, this means that on one account (ex. the one you are using now), you need to post any combination of one or more questions or answers which a total of 2 people upvote (20 rep) to gain the ability to upvote others and 13 people upvote (11 more, counting the initial 2 people before) to gain the ability to downvote others.
If you are a low-rep user, you can also gain reputation through other actions (such as suggesting question/answer edits and having them approved), but this isn't as effective at gaining rep as having people vote on your questions/answers.
Wow. I can't even post this question without creating a relevant tag "Superuser" which I'm not allowed to do because I don't have enough reputation.
You can select existing tags as well, which is typically more relevant than creating your own.
This is driving users away. It's the most militant rules I've seen in a forum, disempowering and cultish.
To be fair, some of the reputation amounts don't make much sense to my mind. But in the long run, assuming you aren't creating disposable accounts each time you visit, the reputation requirements fade into the background fairly quickly (in my experience). In any case, if you really use Stack Exchange, it becomes less of a problem over time and Stack Exchange seems unlikely to be changing their policies in the near future.