Of the questions I have only one: why, if I found a possible solution and registered only to write an answer, I can't do it because I don't have a reputation? It turns out to be absurd.
But I have an answer to a topic with the same name: ASUS Armoury Crate installation fails with error 102
I ran into the same problem, and it helped me: disable all tweaks disabling metrics, monitoring and other data collection in the Win 10 Tweaker I use. If you use any similar program, for example, the same O&O ShutUp10, or you installed a custom build of Windows 10 with tweaks sewn in or manually did tweaks (related to Privacy) through the registry editor, group policies or services - they need to be rolled back. It helped me to go through the installation to the end.