I think I have achieved the criteria for the badge on this question, and I have waited about an hour. Is there something that I am missing?
The "Enlightened" badge is defined as "First to answer and accepted with at least 10 upvotes." Since you're the only one to answer, and you have 10 upvotes, and your answer was accepted, you do meet all of the criteria.
So, here's what I think is going on...
You have to wait a while before you will receive this badge because there is a short period of time where users can change their votes. Once this timeout has expired, and those votes are permanently locked in, I suspect you'll get that then you'll get your badge.
Good question (+1).
(If anyone knows the timeout for votes to get locked in, please add it in a comment and I'll upvote your comment. Thanks in advance.)
You have been awarded the badge